Mycoplasma is a member of the Mollicutes class (mollis, soft; cutis, skin) and the Mycoplasmatales order. This order is divided into four families:
The majority of mycoplasmas that cause human infections belong to the Mycoplasmataceae family. Saprophytic mycoplasmas are mostly found in the Acholeplasmataceae family; these mycoplasmas do not require sterols as a growth factor. The Spiroplasmataceae family is dominated by mycoplasmas, which are arthropod and plant parasites that rely on sterols for growth. Mycoplasmas, which are strict anaerobes, are found in the intestines of cattle and sheep and belong to the Anaplasmataceae family.
Classification of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma
Mycoplasmas are prokaryotes, but they differ from other prokaryotes in that they have a sterol-containing cell membrane. Furthermore, mycoplasmas lack a cell wall. When Mycoplasma pathogens were first discovered, they were thought to be viruses or a type of bacteria called L.
Mycoplasma parasites, which require cholesterol or other sterols as growth factors, are members of the Mycoplasmataceae family. It is divided into two genera: Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. There are at least 13 different genera. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma are known to colonize humans and cause disease.
- Pathogens that use glucose or arginine but not urea are found in the genus Mycoplasma. There are over 90 species in the genus. These species are found as commensals, parasites, and pathogens in a wide range of plant insects and mammalian hosts.
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common species responsible for human infection. Other pathogens commonly associated with human infections include Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma orale, and Mycoplasma genitalium.
- Ureaplasma is the genus name for organisms that use urea. The genus Ureaplasma contains five species, the most important of which is Ureaplasma urealyticum, which has been isolated from infections of the genital and respiratory tracts in humans.
List of infections caused by Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species to Human
|Mycoplasma pneumoniae||Upper respiratory tract diseases, lower respiratory tract infections, and primary atypical pneumonia|
|Mycoplasma hominis||Pelvic inflammatory disease and postpartum fever|
|Mycoplasma fermentans||Opportunistic infections in patients with HIV|
|Mycoplasma pirum||Septicemia in patients with HIV|
|Mycoplasma salivarium||Infection unknown|
|Mycoplasma orale||Infection unknown|
|Mycoplasma genitalium||Infection unknown|
|Ureaplasma urealyticum||Chorioamnionitis, prematurity, vaginitis, cervicitis, acute salpingitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease|
Source: Parija, Subhash Chandra (2012) Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology Second Edition