Vaginal Discharge: What’s Abnormal? ,Specimen Collection & Diagnosis

In the clinical laboratory, Vaginal discharge are examined to diagnose infections and pregnancy complications, as well as for forensic testing (Semen) in sexual assault patients. Vaginitis is one of the most common conditions diagnosed by…

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Entamoeba histolytica : Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Entamoeba histolytica infection affects up to 10% of the world’s population and is the third leading cause of parasitic deaths, trailing only malaria, the clinical manifestation of Plasmodium species parasite infection, and schistosomiasis, the umbrella…

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Trichomoniasis: Causes, symptoms, and treatments

T. vaginalis, a parasitic protozoon, causes trichomoniasis. The infection is spread through sexual contact and causes vaginitis in women and, in some cases, urethritis in men. The majority of men are asymptomatic carriers. The infection…

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Bacterial vaginosis: Causes, symptoms, and treatments

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginitis, affecting 40% to 50% of women of reproductive age. Bacterial vaginosis causes When there is an imbalance in the ratio of normal vaginal bacterial flora,…

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Semen Analysis : Purpose, Procedure, & Results

Advances in andrology and assisted reproductive technology (ART), as well as increased concern about fertility, particularly among couples choosing to have children later in life, have led to a greater emphasis on semen analysis. Patients…

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Enterobius vermicularis

Enterobius vermicularis : Morphology, Diagnosis & Treatment

Common names: Pinworm, seatworm. Common associated disease and condition names: Enterobiasis, pinworm infection. Scientific name : Enterobius vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis can be found all over the world, but it is most common in temperate climates….

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Nitrate Broth & Nitrate Reducing Test : Principle, Composition and Results Interpretation

The ability to reduce nitrate is useful for differentiating and identifying different types of bacteria, particularly those in the Enterobacteriaceae family. The ability of non-fermenters and other gram-negative bacilli to reduce nitrates varies. Some members…

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LJ medium for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis : Culture and Biochemical Reactions

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate aerobe that grows extremely slowly in media. The optimal temperature is 37°C, and bacteria do not grow at temperatures below 25°C or above 40°C. The ideal pH range is 6.4–7.0….

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Mycobacterium : Classification & General Properties

Mycobacterium is a genus of nonmotile, non–spore-forming, aerobic bacilli in the Mycobacteriaceae family. They are slightly curved rods with filamentous and branching forms on occasion. They form mould-like pellicle in liquid medium; thus, the name…

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Petroff’s concentration method For The Detection of Mycobacterium

Many mycobacterial culture samples are heavily contaminated with commensal flora. It is critical to remove these because they can outgrow the culture faster than the mycobacteria. Principle of the Petroff’s Concentration Method Contaminant destruction is…

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