innate and adaptive

Differences between innate and acquired immunity

Adaptive immunity is also known as acquired immunity since the efficacy of immune response is only acquired by experience. Innate immunity is the resistance that a person is born with. Individual immunity, racial immunity, and species immunity…

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Herd Immunity

Herd immunity Versus Local immunity in Immunology

Herd immunity refers to the total degree of immunity in a population. The eradication of an infectious disease is dependent on the establishment of a high degree of herd immunity against the pathogen. An epidemic…

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Adaptive immunity

Acquired immunity : Active and passive immunity

Adaptive immunity is also known as acquired immunity since the efficacy of immune response is only acquired by experience. Types of acquired immunity Acquired immunity to a microbe can be caused by either the host’s…

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Innate immunity

Innate Immunity : Factors influencing innate immunity

The primary role of the immune system is to prevent or restrict infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. The identification of microorganisms and foreign substances is the first occurrence…

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Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomonas vaginalis Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment

Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan with flagella that can survive in an anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment. It is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection in humans in developed countries, and infection rates are the same in…

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renal function

Renal Function Test Panel and Markers

At least 8 million Americans are affected by kidney disease. Kidney failure kills more people per year than colon cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer combined. Chronic kidney disease or kidney failure raises a patient’s…

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Uric acid measurement

Uric Acid (Uricase Method) and Clinical Significance

The final breakdown product of purine nucleoside metabolism is uric acid. Gout, increased catabolism of nucleic acids, and renal disease are three main disease states associated with elevated plasma uric acid. Chemotherapy causes renal damage…

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Foley cartheter for urine collection

6 Common Methods of Urine Specimen Collection

Urine specimen collection methods ranges from non-invasive to invasive. The required selection method is determined by the purpose of the test and the clinical situation. Common Methods of Urine Specimen Collection 1.     Routine Void Urine…

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Type of urine specimens

Five Most Common Types of Urine Specimens

The type of urine specimen collected and the method of collection are determined by the test requested. The following are the five most common forms of urine specimens. Some body fluids can also be tested…

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urine specimen

3 Reasons For Obtaining Urine Specimens

Urine is produced by the filtration of blood by the kidney’s nephrons. Blood reaches the kidney via the renal artery and travels to the glomerulus via small capillaries. Solute and water are filtered through the…

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