Tissue processing : Aims, Principle and steps of tissue processing

Tissue processing is the technique by which fixed tissues are made suitable for embedding within a supportive medium such as molten paraffin wax. It is the next step after fixation and a very important step…

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction: Principle, Steps and Application

Cell culture has proven effective in the identification process of infectious pathogens and remains the goal standard for identification despite it numerous shortcomings such as the fact that it is time consuming. That is, having…

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Poliovirus : Structure , Pathogenesis and Treatment

Poliovirus are from the family Picornavirus and the Enterovirus genus. Poliomyelitis is caused by one of the three types of polioviruses. It is an acute infectious diseases with or without signs of CNS involvement. It…

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Enterovirus : Structure, Types and Clinical syndromes

The genus of Enterovirus belongs to the family of Picornavirus. Enteron means small intestine and is the main replication site for most enteroviruses while PicoRNAvirus are RNA viruses. Therefore, enteroviruses are RNA viruses and Picornaviruses…

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Fasciolopsis buski : Epidemiology, Laboratory Diagnosis & Treatment

Fasciolopsis buski commonly called large or giant intestinal fluke causing Fasciolopsiasis. It was first describe by Buski in 1843 in the duodenum of an East Indian sailor. It is found worldwide but limited to particularly…

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Candida albicans : Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Laboratory Diagnosis & Treatment

Candida species are group of opportunistic fungi and the most common fungi pathogens that affect human. Candida species takes advantage of the host’s debilitated conditions to gain access to the circulation and deep tissues.  …

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Body fluid compartments : Extracellular and Intracellular Fluid

The care of any seriously ill patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance is crucial. The most common biochemical profile is the measurement of serum sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine, often with bicarbonate, and it provides a…

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Blood cells and their function

Hematology is a branch of medicine that deals with blood, blood forming organs and diseases of the blood. The process of formation of blood cells is known as haemopoiesis.  All blood cells are derived from…

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Thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar : Principle , Composition & Cultural characteristics

Kobayashi et al.  created TCBS Agar by modifying Nakanishi’s selective medium. Although this medium was designed to isolate V.cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus, most Vibrio’s grow to healthy large colonies with a variety of colonial morphologies….

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Fixation : Aims and effects of fixation

With a few exceptions (such as enzyme activity in tissue cultures, frozen or frozen-dried preparations), histochemical investigations on living cells are not performed because it is difficult to maintain the tissue and/or cell integrity under…

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